The Ninth Amendment in the Bill of Rights states that the rights of citizens are not limited to those rights spelled out in the Constitution, and the Tenth Amendment was intended to maintain a balance of power between the federal and state governments. These amendments provide for a system of government that divides power between federal and state governments called federalism. The Thirteenth-Fifteenth Amendments establish the concept of equal protection under the law. These amendments ended slavery, provided citizenship, and granted former male slaves the right to vote. Several Supreme Court decisions ushered in the modern civil rights movement leading to the Equal Pay Act, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act as a result of equal protection under the law. Part of the Exploring Our Nation series.