Students learn how wandering Arabs began to settle around desert oasis and how Mohammed challenged traditional religious teachings. The episode follows the development of a military that eventually overcome the people who had sent Mohammed away from Mecca, and the establishment of a thriving economy centered in bazaars of the capital city. Later, when the capital city is moved to Bagdad, it becomes a refined city of beautiful Islamic architecture, and advanced scientific and philosophical achievement. By the time that Bagdad is sacked by the invading Mongols, Islamic culture has spread throughout the Mediterranean world. The episode closes with the Tales of the 1001 Arabian Nights with their stories within stories of Scherezade, Sinbad, Ali Baba and Aladdin, to name only a few.