Oakland, California, home to the Black Panthers, also birthed the pioneering funk-driven freestyle dance Oakland Boogaloo. This dance form is characterized by strong hits and poses. In the late 1960s and 1970s, before the emergence of hip-hop, the city’s African American youth took inspiration from James Brown, the Temptations, Charlie Chaplin, cartoon characters, and sci-fi robots to create a repertoire of original moves. Youth in nearby San Francisco and Richmond soon developed variants of Boogaloo, respectively known as strutting and robotting. Today, these techniques are collectively known as “the funk styles,” owing to their development during the funk era. Despite its pioneering status, Oakland Boogaloo’s cultural contributions are little-known outside of Bay Area dance circles. Part of the "If Cities Could Dance" series.