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Search results for 'captioning research'

128 Learning Center results found.

Non-Speech Information in Captioned Video: A Consumer Opinion Study

Prepared in 1995 by Judith E. Harkins, Ph.D; Ellie Korres; Beth Singer, M.S., CCC-A; and Barbara M. Virvan, M.S.W., with funding provided by the U.S. Department of Education and Gallaudet University. "In television programs and movies, not all information is conveyed through dialogue." That is what is at the heart of this paper: the importance of identifying sound effects, including music, mood, and an explanation of puns, to provide an inclusive and comprehensive viewing experience for persons who are deaf and hard of hearing. Includes findings and recommendations. Appendices include a questionnaire on the awareness of features and another on the demographic characteristics of the sample; a list of companies and organizations that responded to the draft guidelines; and a list of the advisors, consultants, and staff who participated in this study. about research, captioning

Closed Captioned Prompt Rates: Their Influence on Reading Outcomes

This paper, written in 1995 by Martha J. Meyer and Yung-bin Benjamin Lee, examines a study in which 140 reading-deficient students (from fourth, fifth, and sixth grades) were randomly assigned each to either: (a) an average-paced closed-captioned video, (b) a slow-paced closed-captioned video, or (c) printed text with no video. Results indicated significantly more learning occurs for those students using captioned video as compared to those utilizing only traditional print materials. Additionally, students assigned to the slow-paced prompt rate retained significantly more information than those viewing the average-paced captioning. (Causing them to conclude that prompt rates should be designed so that children with various reading speeds have enough time to read and process the information.) about research, captioning

Captions and Reading Rates of Hearing Impaired Students

This 1980 paper, written by Edgar Shroyer and Jack Birch, examines the results of a study in which 185 randomly selected hearing-impaired students from residential schools participated. Indicates that normal extempore speech is measured at 159 words per minute (wpm), and that speech and language on television and films approximates this rate. Finds that if speech on television/films is synchronized in content and speed with captions, approximately 84 percent (%) of hearing-impaired students are not able to read it. (That is, 84% of the students in the study possess reading rates below the 159 wpm of extempore speech.) Notes that other research indicates that the linguistic level of captions would further significantly compounded students' reading rate difficulties. Also finds that the mean wpm reading rate of primary students in their study is 123.7. about research, captioning

A Note on Carrying Captions Over a Shot Change

This paper, written in 1999 by Carl Jensema, Ph.D. and Ramalinga Sarma Danturthi, Ph.D., retraces the research done by Dr. Kenneth G. O'Bryan at the Children's Television Workshop and his creation of the term "shot change." A shot change refers to a sudden change in the picture shown on the screen. His studies suggest that when this occurs, the viewer goes back and rereads the caption. In this article, Jensema and Danturthi put his theory to the test. Results conclude that viewers do not always react the same way to a shot change; hence, eye movement is unpredictable. Includes eye movement diagrams. about research, captioning

Final Report: Caption Speed and Viewer Comprehension of Television Programs

Dr. Carl Jensema and Dr. Robb Burch examine speed rate and viewer understanding of closed-captioned TV programs in this 1999 research paper. Third in a study of caption rates (first one in 1996 showed medium caption rate to be 141 wpm; second one in 1998 showed rate increased to 145 wpm), this study shows that the reading rate which persons who are deaf or hard of hearing are most comfortable with is 220 wpm. Asks two questions for the basis of this research: "What caption speeds are likely to lead to the highest understanding and retention of information?" and "How do these optimal caption speeds vary with age, sex, degree of hearing loss, education, household size, and frequency of caption viewing?" Includes tables and figures. about research, captioning

Final Report: Presentation Rate and Readability of Closed Captioned Television

Written by Carl Jensema in 1997. Objectives of this report were to (1) establish an advisory board, (2) establish a measurement system, (3) obtain and analyze off-air data, (4) develop video materials, (5) obtain and analyze child data, (6) obtain and analyze adult data, (7) compose the final report, (8) disseminate findings, and (9) submit all monthly reports, as well as the final report. Appendix includes three journal articles produced by the project, including: "Presentation Speed and Vocabulary in Closed-Captioned Television" (1995), "Closed-Caption Television Presentation Speed and Vocabulary" (1996), and "Viewer Reaction to Different Captioned Television Speeds" (1997). about research, captioning

Nonverbatim Captioning in Dutch Television Programs: A Text Linguistic Approach

In the Netherlands, as in most other European countries, closed captions for the deaf summarize texts rather than render them verbatim. Caption editors argue that this way television viewers have enough time to both read the text and watch the program. They also claim that the meaning of the original message is properly conveyed. However, many deaf people demand verbatim subtitles so that they have full access to all original information. They claim that vital information is withheld from them as a result of the summarizing process. Linguistic research was conducted in order to: (a) identify the type of information that is left out of captioned texts and (b) determine the effects of nonverbatim captioning on the meaning of the text. The differences between spoken and captioned texts were analyzed on the basis of on a model of coherence relations in discourse. One prominent finding is that summarizing affects coherence relations, making them less explicit and altering the implied meaning. about research, captioning

Using Captions to Reduce Barriers to Native American Student Success

From the author: "Americans talk about captions as if they were only for foreign films. The problem with such an assumption is that it creates an illusion that the benefit of captions does not extend past translation. This article examines the extent to which using closed-captioned video material in the college classroom can be a useful universal teaching tool in enabling Native American and Alaska Native student achievement. Central in this discussion is a presentation of two years of preliminary data from an ongoing observational study of student success in my American Indian Studies 150 course on 'American Indian history in the United States.' This study addresses the infrequently recognized phenomenon that captions can assist not only students with diagnosed learning disabilities, but also so-called 'normal learners,' or the learning abled, to improve their recol¬lection of information from videos that are used to complement lectures." By Robert Keith Collins, published in the American Indian Culture a...Read More about research, captioning

Captioning Guidelines for the DCMP

These guidelines list DCMP captioning specifications and requirements. about captioning, accessibility-vendors

Captioning Key - About the Key

The first captioning of films in America occurred in 1951, three decades before the advent of closed captioning on broadcast television. It was performed by Captioned Films for the Deaf (CFD), the ancestor of DCMP, which became federally funded in 1958. Guidelines were developed at CFD to assist teams of teachers and deaf persons who wrote captions for many years, first for films and then later for videos. From about captioning-key

Teacher Survey of Captioned Media

Research for school use of captioned media from 1993-1996 From Gallaudet University about history, captioning

Captioned Films for the Deaf

Originally published in 1976 in “Exceptional Children,” Malcolm J. Norwood, Chief of Captioned Films and Telecommunications, writes of efforts to have FCC authorize use of a closed captioning device. From Malcolm J. Norwood about history, dcmp, captioning

Media Services and Captioned Films

Written in the early '70s by Dr. Malcolm J. Norwood, this article reviews the restructuring made within the program. Discusses the first demonstration of closed captioning. From Malcolm J. Norwood about dcmp, history

Closed Captioning Standards and Protocol for Canadian English Language Broadcasters

This 2004 manual provides general guidelines on closed captioning in Canada. Begins with the Canadian Radio, Television, and Telecommunications Commission's (CRTC) regulatory standards for closed captioning. Explains how to correctly present the following caption types: off-line roll-up and pop-on, as well as on-line real-time, live-display, and teleprompter. Includes a chapter regarding the history of captioning in Canada. about research, captioning, educators

The Case for Real Time Captioning in Classrooms

The inclusion of captions in a classroom dramatically increases a deaf or hard of hearing person's ability to comprehend the speaker. In addition, providing captions to hearing people also seems to enhance verbal comprehension. The increased comprehension for both hearing and deaf students will likely lead to a better learning environment and improved information transfer between the teacher and the students. Author Aaron Steinfeld is a researcher at the National Robotics Engineering Consortium at Carnegie Mellon University. The material from this article is drawn from his 1999 dissertation "The Benefit of Real-Time Captions in a Classroom Environment." From Aaron Steinfeld about research, captioning, educators

Closed Captioned TV: A Resource for ESL Literacy Education

It has been four years since the publication of "Closed Captioned Television for Adult ESL Literacy Learners" (Spanos & Smith, 1990). Since that time, interest in the subject has been growing among teachers, students, and researchers. What is new in closed-captioned television (CCTV)? Recent technological, pedagogical, and regulatory developments have heightened awareness and appreciation of the medium's educational potential. This digest reports on new captioning legislation that increases access to captioned programs and on new research, technology, and uses of closed captions in the field of adult ESL. about research, captioning, esl

Television Captions for Hearing-impaired People: A Study of Key Factors That Affect Reading Performance

This article, written in 1996 by Frank Thorn and Sondra Thorn, addresses the concern that some viewers are not receiving the benefits of captioning because the captions are too small or too fast for them to read. The authors designed a series of experiments to test this theory, focusing on (1) optical blur, (2) presentation speed, and (3) the acquisition of English as a first or second language. (Observers received eye exams before taking part in the study.) The results revealed that "both blur and fast presentation rate dramatically reduced reading accuracy," and those with English as a first language performed better than those who have English as a second language. Suggests simultaneous captioning as a solution to these problems. about research, captioning

Television Literacy: Comprehension of Program Content Using Closed Captions for the Deaf

Elementary school deaf students were selected as participants in this 1998 study by Margaret S. Jelinek Lewis and Dorothy W. Jackson. They found that the time constraint of captions further compounded the literacy problem for deaf readers as captions move quickly off the screen. Deaf readers also exhibited a lack of fluent word reading, which adversely affects comprehension; word-reading fluency depended on the ability to recognize (effortlessly and automatically) letters, spelling patterns, and whole words. In addition, students who viewed captions at a slower pace of 78 wpm retained significantly more information than students who viewed captions at an average rate of 116 wpm. about research, captioning

A Study of the Eye Movement Strategies Used in Viewing Captioned Television

This 2000 paper by Carl Jensema reports that deaf children might be totally ignoring captions on television programs until they are about seven years old and then start "utilizing captions bit by bit between the ages of seven and nine years. In other words, they may be ignoring captions until they have the reading skills to understand them, rather than utilizing captions to learn to read." Research was continued (at the Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf) and reported on in the 2003 "The Relation Between Eye Movement and Reading Captions and Print by School-Age Deaf Children." Conclusions included affirmations that captioned television programs are complex reading material, requiring the reader to obtain information from both a moving picture and words flashed on the screen. Deaf children are supposed to "split his or her attention between the picture and the captions according to some personal formula that maximizes the information gained." Cites the use of the EyeGaze system, which was initially in...Read More about research, captioning

The Effects of Keyword Captions to Authentic French Video on Learner Comprehension

A study by Helen Gant Guillory in 1998. The three different amounts of text used were compared: full text, keywords, and no text. The results of the experiment showed that the keyword captions group outperformed the no-text group and that the full text captions group outperformed the keyword captions group. However, a post-hoc analysis revealed no significant difference between the means of the full text captions group and the keyword captions group. The positive effect of both keyword and full text captions on comprehension, the basic research hypothesis, was confirmed. From Helen Gant Guillory about research, captioning